The surgical patient is the one who is going to undergo, is undergoing or has undergone surgery. When you are in a hospitalization unit and the professionals know from the operating room that one of their patients has been given a date, time and place for a surgical intervention, the first thing they will do is inform him or her the medical information if necessary.
They will assess the degree of anxiety and minimize your concerns as much as possible. They will explain in detail the process of the intervention and provide them with the corresponding informed consent, they will ask you to read it carefully and when they think it appropriate, sign it and give it to them.
Preparation of the patient
Generally the preparation will start the previous afternoon, for most abdominal procedures (gynecology, colorectal, urology, general surgery and orthopedics) this is the case, however some intervention entails a more concise preparation ( Head and neck, parotid, TORS, parathyroid/thyroid and laryngectomy). The patient must go to the operating room with:
This consists of ECG, complete analysis (blood count, biochemistry and coagulation) and chest radiography. Depending on the age of the patient, some or other tests will be taken.
From 0 to 14 years old: Hemogram and coagulation.
From 14 to 20 years: Hemogram, coagulation and biochemistry.
From 20 to 40 years: Hemogram, coagulation, biochemistry and electrocardiogram.
From the age of 40: Hemogram, coagulation, biochemistry, electrocardiogram and chest X-ray.
Peripheral venous route
Preferably, it should be channeled into the right upper limb. They will avoid the veins on the back of the hand and they will evaluate first those of the flexure of the elbow, the catheter number that they will introduce should not be less than 20, the ideal would be to channel a number 18 in adults and a number 22 in children.
Cleaning the intestinal area
It will be done if it was an abdominal surgery and always under medical criteria. They e will do it through the use of soap enemas – one will be administered the afternoon before the intervention and another a few hours before it.
Complete hygiene: If the patient is self-sufficient they will ask him to shower, otherwise they will perform a general clean in bed, in both cases he should go to the operating room without underwear.
Shaving of the surgical area: If the area to intervene has little hair, they will not shave it.
Measurement of vital signs:They will take them and record them in the nursing graph.
When the caretaker comes to find the patient to take him to the operating room, he must be accompanied by a family member and with his complete medical history.
Conclusion: Post-operative nursing care
When the patient returns to the hospitalization unit, the first thing we will do is make an assessment in which they will monitor the level of consciousness, take the vital signs and record them in the nursing graph, will see that the dressing or bandage comes clean from the operating room, check the proper functioning of the venous line, probes and drains, update the medication prescribed by the surgeon, if it has changed and check the scheduled analgesia and start administering it when necessary.